These articles (taken from parentingmagazine) are, in essence, guidelines to be used by the parents or caregiver toensure proper development of their child up to the second year. The article alsoeducates the reader that every child develops at their own pace, and there is noexact time table that one can easily look at to see how well their child isdoing. Either way the two articles overly support deep mutual interactionbetween both the child and the caregiver. Stanley Greenspans The AmazingPower of Baby Love teaches that simple gestures and interactions help babiesdevelop intelligence, language and character.
It states that at 2 to 4 months(notice the allowance of time Greenspan gives) the child becomes more involvedwith the caregiver. Notice the correlation between the authors statement andAinsworths Stages of Attachment (p463-465): Birth through 2 months-indiscriminate social responsiveness- “at first, babies do not focus theirattention exclusively on their mothers and will at times respond positively toanyone. ” 2 months through 7 months- discriminate social response- “Duringthe second phase, infants become more interested in the caregiver and the otherfamiliar people and direct their social responses to them. ” From birth toapproximately 2 months the infants is does not really who cares who handlesthem.
Afterwards, from 2 through seven months the child develops into the nextstage. Once the child is in the second stage of Ainsworths theory Greenspaninsinuates that the child is intelligent enough to distinguish differencesbetween people: “your child seems to be more intensely involved with you. Shemay look longingly into your eyes. . . or wiggle in anticipation when she hears youapproaching.
” By 5 months the child the child should have their own ways ofexpressing affection: -Responding to facial expressions -Initiating interactions-Making sounds or moving in rhythm with motions of your own -Relaxing when beingheld -Cooing when attention is given -Looking at face as if studying it -Lookinguneasy/ sad when you move away The last in the list above relate to stage threeof Ainsworths stage theory, focused attachment. The child suffers fromseparation anxiety, or fear that the caregiver will leave and never return. Thisaction can relate to Piagets thoughts of object permanence, because the childfears or believes that once an object is out of sight it is gone for good. Bydefinition: Object Permanence- The knowledge that objects have a permanentexistence that is independent of our perceptual contact with them. In Piagetstheory object permanence is a major achievement of the sensorimotor period. Greenspan then begins to talk about the beginning of communication.
He statesthat children really do have a comprehension of language before they say theirfirst words. Gestures instead take place of verbal communication. At firstgestures are purposeful for requests and referential communication, later forfunctioning as symbols to label objects, events and characteristics. When thecaregiver responds to the child the following interaction supposedly helps boostthe childs self esteem. More importantly, the child learns about othersmoods, and in turn learn the ability to react to them.
By responding to a babythey learn that their actions have an observable impact on their environment. Two-way conversations also make the child more empathetic. Once they see thatthey have an impact on the caregiver they see that person as an individual, someone separate from themselves. In the end Greenspan emphasizes again thatchildren develop at their own pace. On top of that, they have their own responseto a stimulus. Just because the react a way that a caregiver was expecting doesnot necessarily mean that there is anything wrong.
When interacting with a childone should study how the child reacts, and then do what the child seemed toenjoy to “bring the most pleasure,” that should not be too obvious. FinallyGreenspan suggests the following: -Talk in babble, using high to low pitches-Use a variety of faces while babbling -Massage the baby, telling them what yourdoing -Move the babies arms and legs while talking and looking at them -Do notexhaust the baby, stop when signs of fatigue/overstimulation arise EmilyAbedons A Year to Cheer discusses the development of a child from 12 through24 months. The most important thing again is that Abedon emphasizes childrendevelop at their own pace, and parents should not keep .