As hotels are concerns, the overall mission is to do net income. The basic rule of planing an HVAC system is to do it efficient. On one manus, hotels have to guarantee invitees ‘ satisfaction and supply a comfy work environment for employees. On the other manus, hotels besides need to cut cost because HVAC system is a large energy consumer.
Although retrofit of an HVAC system can be expensive, it is worth it for hotels with old equipment. The investing will really be covered in merely few old ages and convey hotels many long-run benefits. In add-on, a new HVAC system helps hotels to be socially responsible and protect our environment.
HVAC ( Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning ) refers to the engineering of indoor or automotive environmental comfort ( Wikipedia ) . HVAC systems in cordial reception edifices provide control of the interior temperature, humidness, air motion, and air quality within the construction ( Hotel Mule Wiki ) . A well-designed HVAC system is comprised of a figure of constituents including boilers, hair-raisers, centralized and decentralized guestroom HVAC units, big roof mounted PTAC units, air managing units, and chilling towers. As service is nucleus of the cordial reception industry, an HVAC system straight influences invitees ‘ satisfaction and therefor plays a large function in guaranting hotels ‘ success.
The demands of an HVAC system can be really different depending on the size, location, construction and manner of the hotel belongings. A little B & A ; B may merely hold a warming unit while a large luxury hotel may use a immense temperature control system. With the development of engineering, some HVAC systems are really hi-tech and efficient. Besides, the redevelopment of an HVAC system in some old belongingss can be extremely expensive and complicated. When be aftering an HVAC system, any little error may take to a large failure and potentially a hotel catastrophe.
As HVAC system is a large consumer of energy, the more efficient they are, the more costs a hotel can cut. A “ green ” system can besides assist a hotel to construct a good repute. In this paper, some suggestions and analyses of how to plan a hotel HVAC system will be discussed.
Harmonizing to Pradeep ( 2005 ) , although planing an HVAC system for a hotel is a immense undertaking and consists of many cardinal stairss, the undermentioned three are the most of import:
* Energy preservation
* Water preservation
* Indoor air quality
Unlike office edifices, HVAC systems have to be operated for 24 hours a twenty-four hours, seven yearss a hebdomad in hotels. As Hu, Kwong, and Chao ( 2006 ) argued, there is room to salvage energy in hotels. Choosing a cooling unit, pumping system and chilling tower is important to the control of energy usage. Although hair-raisers with higher Coefficient-of-Performance ( COP ) are more expensive, they are suited for hotel applications and the payback period is sensible ( Hu, Kwong & A ; Chao, 2006 ) . Based on this consideration, H2O cooled hair-raisers should replace air cooled hair-raisers.
Another manner to better chilling system efficiency is put ining variable-frequency thrusts on hair-raisers, pumps and chilling towers ( Fypower ) . With the aid of these thrusts, chilling system power tonss can be controlled to suit hotels ‘ specific demands ; for illustration, the chilling burden in summer could be much high than in fall, the chilling burden could besides be different between twenty-four hours and dark. Therefore, sometimes it is non necessary for hair-raisers to run on a full burden all the clip. Hotels can salvage energy during the low chilling burden period. Furthermore, larger hotels or convention centres may hold another job: the tenancy degree can fluctuate significantly within a short period of clip. As Hu, Kwong, and Chao ( 2006 ) mentioned in their survey, “ Manual control may non react fast adequate and may ensue in waste of energy. ” To cover with this, constructing mechanization systems ( BAS ) can be used. They can incorporate, control and proctor HVAC equipment in a most effectual manner with minimal human mistakes ( Pradeep, 2005 ) .
Another portion of the system is to utilize the free cool air from outside to salvage energy. If a temperature detector or web-based control system ( Scarpa, 2009 ) can be used by a hotel, it is even possible to acquire free chilling during the forenoon and eventide.
Water preservation in an HVAC system is non every bit of import as in other functional use such as cookery, rinsing, bathing, flushing, wash and boilers, etc. ( Pradeep, 2005 ) . If hotels use H2O cooled chilling units alternatively of air cooled hair-raisers, they will devour a big sum of H2O. But as the quality of H2O for chilling towers is much lower than drinkable H2O, hotels can decide this job by utilizing a grey H2O system or decently reusing sewerage H2O.
Indoor Air Quality
The “ V ” in HVAC system refers to airing. Through the procedure of ventilating, air can be changed or replaced in any infinite to command temperature or take wet, olfactory properties, fume, heat, dust, airborne bacteriums, C dioxide, and to refill O ( Wikipedia ) . Harmonizing to this, the importance of ventilating is non merely related to invitees ‘ comfort but besides related to the safety and wellness of whoever stays in the hotel belongings. However, different suites and infinites may hold different demands for air airing. Guests will experience uncomfortable when there is no airing while they are kiping. Kitchens and bathrooms need mechanical fumes to command olfactory properties and sometimes humidness ( Handbook, A. 2001 ) . In all public infinites fresh air demands to be ducted from the outside and exhaust air must be removed. Besides fans, a well-designed HVAC system can besides guarantee effectual natural airing. The layout of Windowss, doors and blowholes demands to be planned carefully.
As recognized by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers ( ASHRAE ) , uneffective HVAC systems can do, or assist the growing of cast in hotels. 50 per centum of all unwellnesss are caused by contaminated indoor air ( Freed, 2009 ) . Because of this, model protection merchandises like air purifier are deserving put ining ( Martin, 2005 ) . Measuring HVAC systems on a regular basis and implementing proper operation and care processs are really of import.
HVAC combined with other systems
By utilizing infra-red engineering in guestrooms, the HVAC system can be automatically turned on when a invitee enters a room. The air-conditioning will get down to command the room temperature and the ventilating system will besides get down to work. If the invitee wants to change the room temperature by him or herself, manual control devices should besides be available. “ Once the invitee leaves the room, the temperature can be adjusted to the degree pre-set by the hotel to maintain energy costs down and supply a more comfy environment for the invitee when he or she returns ( Worcester, 1998 ) . ” Some similar control systems can be every bit simple as cardinal card system or every bit hi-tech as a sound-activated system or even biosensors. To observe tenancy in the guestroom is now the most effectual manner to command energy end product.
Furthermore, as mentioned before, with the aid of a edifice mechanization system, a hotel will be able to command the whole belongings automatically. In add-on to regular operations, clip programming, restricting demand and an early warning system failure can be implemented in an HVAC system ( H & A ; MM, 1996 ) . This can significantly assist hotels to cut down labour cost, salvage energy and enhance guest satisfaction.
Another tendency is the usage of a raised floor with under-floor HVAC system. Harmonizing to Alwine ( 2010 ) , an under-floor tract created by panels can supply a belongings with a service distribution system. Such service distribution systems include modular wiring, inactive or active zone cabling and warming and airing and air conditioning. Using this system, fresh air can be supplied by air diffusors from below the floor straight into the occupied infinite. As a traditional overhead service distribution design uses walls and columns to put overseas telegrams and HVAC systems, an under-floor system can salvage more infinite and support more installations. Furthermore, Alwine ( 2010 ) besides argued that “ raised entree flooring affords operators more flexibleness to react to equipment layout and engineering alterations rapidly, easy and cost-effectively because updating the interior design does non demand expensive installation investing and building outgos. ” This is highly of import for hotels because hotels are running 24 hours a twenty-four hours and are cost-sensitivity. This design has been proven really successful in casinos and will besides be applied by more and more hotels.
After a system design, a hotel needs to see some key issues when purchasing the system ( Higgins, 2009 ) . First of wholly, the public presentation of the HVAC system needs to be ensured. The hotel should make some research on the company and its merchandises. If possible, they should besides seek to look into the public presentation of systems in other hotels. After this, a hotel needs to see the public-service corporation cost and public presentation cost. Although some systems may be expensive at purchase, they can salvage a batch of energy and convey the hotel more benefits in the long-run. The sound degree and equipment size are besides of import considerations. Gloede ( 2007 ) argued that a belongings needs to find precisely what warming and chilling burden is needed and so spec the system consequently. Finally, hotels should measure the value of the whole HVAC system to happen the most suited one for their belongings.
As an HVAC is a uninterrupted operating system, the hotel can non ignore it after purchase and installing. A care program for the HVAC system needs to be established to guarantee the success of operation. Harmonizing to Freed ( 2009 ) , air conditioning comprises 50-70 % of a hotel ‘s energy ingestion. By decently cleaning the HVAC system, a hotel can salvage 20-30 % on an energy measure. Furthermore, “ the figure one cause of heating/cooling system failure is ungraded and neglect ( Freed, 2009 ) ” . Based on these factors, hotels should follow rigorous care criterions and agendas. The benefit of this is that equipment is efficient and less likely to interrupt down. The dislocation of an HVAC system non merely affects a hotel ‘s gross, but besides consequences in a wellness hazard.
Hotels can develop a preparation program for employees so they can manage most of the regular care. On the other manus, hotels besides need to outsource experts to make the deep cleansing and preventative care yearly. If necessary, big hotels can delegate person to make HVAC energy audits. This individual is responsible for operating, maintaining, and commanding the cost of the HVAC system and studies to the executive applied scientist. In order to cover with exigencies, hotels need to develop an exigency response program. Certain information such as elaborate equipment layout drawings and exigency contacts should be prepared to salvage clip and money ( Doring, 2000 ) .
By upgrading a hotel ‘s HVAC system, employees ‘ productiveness can be increased because of an improved working environment ( Gann, 1998 ) . Harmonizing to 1992 Means Construction Data, the installed cost of the HVAC system is about 10 per centum of the entire edifice building cost. Harmonizing to this, a 50,000-square-foot edifice demands about $ 200,000 to upgrade its system in 1995 ( Gann, 1998 ) . If we assume this per centum stays the same and calculate rising prices, the sum will be larger today. This seems to be a immense disbursal if a hotel wants to retrofit its HVAC system. The hotel direction besides needs to make up one’s mind whether it is worthwhile, sing the impact on gross during the redevelopment period. Based on Gann ‘s computation, the return on investing will be about 71 % and simple payback will be 17 months ( based on the statistics in 1995 for a 50,000-square-foot edifice ) . With the development of engineering, HVAC systems are going more and more low-cost and efficient. Now, more than of all time, a new HVAC system is deserving retrofitting in a hotel.
The redevelopment of Marriott Mission Valley ‘s HVAC system saved the hotel more than 700,000 kWh per twelvemonth ( Fypower ) . Another instance survey done by Mode: Green showed that a hotel in Chicago, which installed new thermoregulators and accountants, could salvage about 22 % of the warming and chilling costs with a return on investing under three old ages.
In order to be after a successful HVAC system, three major elements should be foremost defined. In energy preservation, H2O cooled hair-raisers with higher Coefficient-of-Performance ( COP ) are preferred. Hair-raisers, pumps and chilling towers should hold variable-frequency thrusts installed. This can assist the hotel to salvage energy and cut costs. A cardinal control system such as BAS, is suited for big belongingss. In H2O preservation, hotels can utilize a grey H2O system, or a purification system to cut down H2O waste and reuse sewerage H2O. Venting systems should be designed to safeguard clients ‘ wellness. Depending on their demands, hotels can take to unite HVAC systems with other control systems to micro command each device in the belongings. Under-floor HVAC systems have become more and more popular.
It is a good scheme for the technology section to collaborate with other sections such as suites division and the human resources section to guarantee the consistence and success of the HVAC system program. When the direction squad decides to restitute the HVAC system, a long-run position should be taken. Salvaging energy, cutting costs, being environmentally-friendly – they are the “ Trinity ” .